The Hebrew word for “month,” chodesh, actually means:

“new moon; month.”  Chodesh  can refer to a “month,” or the period from one new moon to another.  (Chodesh, #2320, The New Strong’s Expanded Dictionary of Bible Words.)

Since the Biblical month begins with the New Moon, the weekly Sabbaths are intrinsically linked to the moon.  New Moon day restarts the weekly cycle.  Yahuwah created the lights in the heavens for the express purpose of calculating time.

“Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years . . . .”  (Genesis1:14, KJV)

The word “seasons” comes from the word mo’ed.

Mō’ĕd or mō’ādāh; congregation, festive gathering; appointment, signal . . . Since the Jewish festivals occurred at regular intervals, this word becomes closely identified with them.  Mō’ĕdis used in a broad sense for all religious assemblies.  It was closely associated with the tabernacle itself . . . [Yahuwah] met Israel there at specific times for the purpose of revealing His will.  It is a common term for the worshiping assembly of . . . [Yahuwah’s] people.  (#4150, Hebrew-Greek Key Word Study Bible)

The Hebrew calendar is a lunisolar calendar, meaning that months are based on lunar months, but years are based on solar years.

Rosh Chodesh or Rosh Hodesh (Hebrew: ראש חודש‎‎; trans. Beginning of the Month; lit. Head of the Month) is the name for the first day of every month in the Hebrew calendar, marked by the birth of a new moon.

Ezekiel 46:1 & Nature’s Testimony

Ezekiel 46:1 establishes that there are three different types of days:

    1. New Moon Days;
    1. Work Days;
    1. Sabbath Days

Thus says the Master Yahuwah: “The gateway of the inner court that faces toward the east shall be shut the six working days; but on the Sabbath it shall be opened, and on the day of the New Moon it shall be opened.” (See Ezekiel 46:1.)

It stands to reason that the different classes of days would be delineated in nature (Creation).  When reckoning the dawn after conjunction as the commencement of New Moon Day, we find that each type of day is generally marked by specific moon phases:  (1) New Moon Day is preceded by darkness (conjunction); (2) Work days are preceded by the illuminated phases (excluding the quarter phases).1 (3) Sabbath Days are preceded by the quarter phases.  Thus, this method makes consistently identifying the Sabbaths by the moon’s appearance much easier and more practical.  It seems that Creation itself testifies to this method of reckoning.

The Book of Exodus establishes the beginning of the Hebrew calendar:

“And the LORD spoke unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying: ‘This month shall mark for you the beginning of the months; it shall be the first of the months of the year for you.'” (12:1-2)

In the Book of Numbers, God speaks of the celebration of the new moon to Moses:

“And on your joyous occasions – your fixed festivals and new moon days – you shall sound the trumpets over your burnt offerings and your sacrifices of well-being.” (10:10)

In Psalm 81:3, both new and full moon are mentioned as a time of recognition by the Hebrews:

“Blow the trumpet at the time of the New Moon, at the full moon, on our solemn feast day. For this is a statute for Israel, a law of the God of Jacob.

The occurrence of Rosh Chodesh was originally confirmed on the testimony of witnesses observing the new moon. After the Sanhedrin declared Rosh Chodesh for either a full month or a defective, 29-day month, news of it would then be communicated throughout Israel and the diaspora.

A custom was developed in which an additional day could be added to the month to ensure that certain holidays (such as Yom Kippur) did not fall on the days before or after Shabbath.

According to the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia:

The New Moon is still, and the Sabbath originally was, dependent upon the lunar cycle . . . Originally the New Moon was celebrated in the same way as the Sabbath; gradually it became less important while the Sabbath became more and more a day of religion and humanity, of religious meditation and instruction, of peace and delight of the soul (p. 410)

The New Moons were linked with Sabbaths as a special class of holy days. They were days of rejoicing and feasting with even more sacrifices preformed on New Moon then were offered on the seventh-day Sabbath. Like the seventh-day Sabbath, the New Moons were to be days of rest with no buying and selling. (See Amos 8:5.) Those who keep the seventh-day Sabbath have long used Isaiah 66:23 as proof that the seventh-day Sabbath will still be kept throughout eternity: “And it shall come to pass, that from one new moon to another, and from one Sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before me, saith Yahuwah.”

And it shall come to pass, that from one new moon to another, and from one Sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before me, saith Yahuwah


The question is then asked, “If we’re going to be keeping the seventh-day Sabbath throughout eternity, shouldn’t we be keeping it now?” This text reveals that the calendar by which we will be keeping the seventh-day Sabbath is one on which the New Moons are also observed as worship days. If we will come to worship Yahuwah on New Moons throughout eternity, should we not come to worship Him on those special days now as well?